Skip to main content

Full text of "Superintendents of the Yellowstone National Parks Monthly Report, May 1920"

See other formats





Copy from 

FILE 145 

19 2 0. 



" t 4 Y , . 


I, General Conditions i 

XX* Fersonnel. . . 2 

XXI. Work Completed 7 

IV # Work in Progress 10 

V, Work Batfun 12 

VI* Plane or Proposed Hork 12 

VIX. Policies. .,.*..., 13 

VIII, Coat of Operation 13 

IX, Other liatt arn of Interast.... 14 

ffild Animals 14 

Birds . , , « . 17 

Irishes 17 

Seasonal Changes ♦.,..♦ 18 

Arrests <& Violations of Law 19 

forest Jfiroa. ........ 20 

Acuidents and Casualties. • 1 20 
Medical Services. *•*•««*••• 

Natural Phenomena 20 

Special Visitors 20 

Motion Pictures, . . 21 

Miscellaneous . . 21 

1 teceipts and Hejaittaneea 21 

Original notes from Ch.Ran.Of f ice, dinner, Weather 
Bureau, and Electrician, attached. 


. A . L • 




9, 19». 


2he following Is ■* rm^ort on conditions in the 
Yellowstone national . arlc t and on the sparntlon of ttu 

vhloh was 4 degrees bolow nomad for ^. It *aa uniformly 
lew and no iiwul estrones occurred. The total pre 
im 2.04 lnohes, which ty .93 InohM greater than nemal. 
:here m B.2 lnanes of snowfall, of which 2 Inches foil 
tte last day of the sjoath t ahioh wai an unusual fall of snow 
for so late a data. 2his low ten lerature and exoesoivo 
precipitation, dU aat land to hasten an already bolatod 
oprlnpr. and the deep news in the pane did not wit sufficiently 
to mafce the roado passable without sens of it beinp renewed 

?hie condition 
oxlated a am 

o enine of the 

tl>e a *r pwk be ft re tlo o <miu of t?o aevson m .Tunc W . 
Bookings Indicate a leewy travel at the Tory boffinnin* of the 
eeaaon 9 reqelrlne; that all oeneeeeionere be in raadiaeea to 
take care of the public ay <Tuno 20th. She iatos otel hae aot 
been open far two owner a v and -./ill, t> ore fore t ro aire aeao 
>rcll*ninary war* than usual to nefee it 
2he Lake cmo me oven In earee eonditton far the 
and rehires an Innsnss amount of labor and freighting before 
it oaa be oocacd for tourists. 

struotion of a new store at ,ake Outlet last fail* end eertooi 
aa lots? as the either aould permit, but still has men to do 
before it can be used. Merge hit taker has the sans con- 
dition at the Canyon, ilatarally* ell of ttese ooneeesioaars 
were very anxious to hare the roads evened early so they 
could : ;ot on the ground and flake ready for the epeniic of 
the season. 


lit were torn* of the ©oaditions that 1 found 
ay return, to the pane on lay 9th, after an absence Logton, 

California and Jk avail, nine© laat f&ll. fev 
ro orts en the der*th of snow between ;*WMefe: ~s and 

Harris, canyon, and to the iftfce Outlet, were m 

However, X had previous!, given instructions V 
letter to hare everything lined up for a atart to open the 
roads soon after wy arrival, and aa soon ae practicable I 
had a eouforeaoe vlth the eonaeaeionere inter ee tod, and we 
agreed upon a plan of cooperation in the matter of furnishing 
labor end earlier and a ^portioning the ex: raises incurred, 
in oa attra t to break through to the Lalse* via Ton* is and 
Canyon* I had send forward ins tractions as to the building 
of a saow plow, to be plaeed In front of the 75~horae~ xjwer 
caterpillar tractor, frcs ideas that I had gathered freai 
talking with the chief raeehsnie in Yosemi , and these 

instructions were aarefully earrled out and the saoirplew 
moated in front of the tractor by oar chief "»ebanle, Bert 

tla&ott. Biere was mob speculation as to whether the plow 
would work in dee~ enow, the majority beli# of the opinion 
that it would not* It did work, far better than anyone ear- 
posted, as will be Oh own by the fast that it left f-eadqaartera 

l£th, reached orris station, 20 miles fron here, on lay 
30th at noonj Canyon, 11 miles further aloi*», on "ley 24th, and 
to i-a&e Outlet, 15 ssiles further, on Nf nath. reviews to 
the date the eater illar started out, the big drift am 

Oate was shoveled through by men furnished by the transportation 
and cmtm companies, tat on the arrival of the big mchino 
with the saowplov;, on Utf it waa found that the out 

had not been laade wide enough, and 30 laen wwnt out from 
lameth on *fcy 13th and widened this out and shoveled through 
another deep drift Just beyond the 'Jolden ante* Beyond this 
point the big nlow worked splendidly in anew up to 4 feet 
dee >, but, of course, there was considerable sfeoveling to be 
done in the deeper drifts and in the oute, end a crew of 12 
mmx was constantly employed with the tractor. Bare and 
shallow plaoes were found sow t Sues for a mile or two in ax* 
tent, but the snow taken from the road waa Area 2 to 5 feet 
deep, with occasional drifts that rm much deeper. 

i?here waa eorne fOar that the road would be bat! 
washed fro* meltii^ saw?, if the snow was scraped out of the 
middle, but this did not prove true, eepeeially where there 
was a little slope from the raiddle towards the outside, and 
the read dried sarprl singly ooon after the snow had been 
seraped away. 

It mt a wonderful ei^ht to watch this powerful 
caterpillar, plowing Its way Mtfpufl four feet of heavy anew, 
leaving a trail behind it eleven feet wide, with the enow 
tanked up eix to eigrht feet deep. It la alao a navel experi- 
ence to drive through this lane of snora for mile a, with a 
comparatively dry road, with the ta#?e aaowbanka aa high aa 
the top of an ordinary automobile, and bo oloae that they are 
within reaah from the oar. 2hese, of course, are oltiw? 
rapidly, hat there will he eone left over the hi#h divides 
for the efityfieation of the first tourists the latter sort of 
thia month, A aet of photographs, shewing the wo*KU* of 
the plow and the snow conditions, la inclosed, 


Light eara were able to go over the roede aoon after 
the anew waa eleared away* general traffic waa pcraitted with 
trucks to Horn a and the eat aide of the *tric, where the met 
had aelted, en Kay 2?th, and to the eaat side on the 8th. 
Be work: waa required to open the road fro eat Yellowstone 
to Upper £«ytar Baein, and with a little shoveling of a few 
dri ta in Gibbon Uauyon the whole mat side waa open on 
21et Of :-, 

Oara were able to go over the road to Soda fcntte 
Station on ay 24th, the only bad drift having been ehovaiad 
onfc by the Cooke City nail contractor^ 

fwiee during the a nth, namely fro a noon, Hay 1 
to noon, May 15th, and fxwra the morning of May : 4th to the 
norniag of the 25th, the heavy true* traffic was sto ;oe< 
the road between Headqctartere and Gardiner, following mery 
heavy atoms which aeaked the read and Made it very soft. 

Only 25 people entered the park during the month, 
by lneloeed report of the Chief ; ;aa?er« ?bese 
entered at aardinar for ahert tripe to Mammoth. ?hia 
aanfeer deea not include thoae coming in to work for the 
Oercmraeat and the concessioners. 

idJitr iiirt ffi irly Sftwriftr* 

tfo difficulty hae bean had in securing no **ay 
laborers and meehanlee aa are wanted, at the aarae we&ea ae 
ware paid them laet year, namely H per d^ for oo jnon labor, 
and in proportion for wohaniea. 

^applies are sonevhat higtar and scarce, especially 
potatoes, ahieh art v 9 p«r get., and sugar, which seems to bo 
constantly soaring. ?h© hi#! prio© of these eta 
the ooet of subsistence of oar laborers considerably higher 
than last season. Meals In our general mess at IfsiSlli ooet 
an average •* 46-1/5 eents 

II. : 

'to I'ay 1st there were 75 employees on duty nnder 
this offloe in the parte, and on 2t*g 31st there vera 94, 
Below is given a list of the number of employees serving under 
sppointaent, ;itb a general statement of the Kind of 
perforaed by eaeh elaeo: 

1 sst. iinglneer. 
1 Blaete»nlth. 

6 Cle r>. 


of -Vans wtatien. 

9 Kleetrlolaas. 

Off iee engineering and in charge 
of road eepelr crews in v 
of Headqaarters. 

blackenith work. hoe- 

i:v: iMfl I l ||i •mi r-iu or 
■ a ddl e horses, and overhauling 
tools and equipment. 

1 disbursing agmt and pur- 
chasing clerk,- 1 on orders, >ro- 
osals aad vouchers; 1 stent 
pher, files and rev e n u es; 1 
payrolls aad tfcnekeeping; 1 
eost accounting, 


indexl^r library, and tabu- 
Lag notoo on ;114 animals, 
birds, and 

to the establishment of the pro- 
posed museum 

In oharge of all traaspertati 
4aelttdlncr sho 

1 in oharge of power plant who 
operated and did necessary lino 
work* * assistant s v/ho 

M» i&lfttt* 

l Buffalo 

Z AM*. Buffalo 


1 Okmeral 

1 Lineman* 

1 i&aster :%eharUe. 

1 jtatoTOtoile 'eohariic. 
1 Metoreyole <eeh*iie« 


regular shifts includingr biaidays. 

In ehe*£e of taw troff&lo herd, 
feeding and oari**? for Mm 

Assisting fcaffalo fceeperjfln 

oaring for the buffalo herd* 

1 in oharge of stables^ **rm»ii<' 

of the month repairing tents 
atid harness for next ee*aon f s 
worte* 1 in charge of engineering 
work* 1 ia eharge of work on erib of 
: bridge and road la east 
forest reserve. 1 in charge of repairs 
sprinkling* qratsnu 

In eh&sg* of construction vo*k« 

or '3d In storehouse insula: 
>s f aad ©orti^r* over, 
nwizg*;, and at 

storehouses* also helped handle 
qpprftlee **wi railroad* 


In charge of telephone eastern; 
did tmige^ and installed in- 

struments* Mg&t tarn 

hqtiixv? freight or express ffcdm 
railroad to He4Agaartera v?hen not 
otherwise oaaaged* 

>ahnon at T'eedqaorters* ?ade 
hourly ^trols for fire at n&ht*. 
end topt fires up and cleaned 
Headquarters t»ildin£* orfeed « 
lneludiig Sendee. 

In chaise of Shops and opening roods 
of mm with caterpillar and snow* 

orfced on automobile and tract repairs* 

Wotted en notoreyolee: A overhauled - 

In charge of general plartbinf at 
Headquarters, did general repair 

\l *«% 

1 telegraph operator. 




6 lit class par* rugf ■« 

:elo pMM *> 
Chief au*er. 
•st. Chief 

Bjt | BjBJpgSJSJ, 

Renovated quarters at rea&piarters 
aad painting signs sad efipai^wmt for 
guidance ef public In par*. 

Seat and received oaten: 
tcrlerri-.e; aleo pat in regular shift 
BjSJ I a; 1 to If pMfi Operate ffc sovo ; 

Operated telephone switchboard. 
Miscellaneous work at headquarters. 
In charge of 

Assisting Chief Tanker. One in 

of southern district: 1 in 
of western district: *nd 1 

#ith crew: opening roads* 

In charge of ra^er stations , on 
dut; Lef inker's office, patrol 

duty in the «r> protecting wild 
animal*, and repairing gem fences. 

horse herd* 

lso looking after 


2nc above employee* were on duty no stated with the ex- 
ception of whom they were on leave of abserae. 

la addition to the regular erartoyees listed above the 

folio ;iiv; -'ero ■ Iqssjl MM ornrit : 

Ml sUM 
Ski Hod labor or s 








tmtat >v wmmt 1 o Ammm 


vrere & mated 




:. mo Jiae 



to list (noon) 




• KH . M 

>t» Klaotriolan 


to 6th 

I tmt 



o. uumt 


1 oj 

to 3rd (noon) 



• Myw 

Mk !:ar|?or 


5 days 


. /ustaaa 

t£* h«EZ^«r 



■ d tys 


... an ■■..* 



to 11th 

|m • 

■1 ligm 

l] fcyi 




1 th 

to 19th 


o*m» Far roll 



to 22M 

6 daya 


I. Dewing 

Park anpar 


to 30th 

12 days 



ore* >;n 

10 th 

v Myt 


£• Saadel 

*el*. Opr. 


to Slat 

M Mra 


i ustnan 

Parte Lazier 

15th (noon) to 15tb 



MU* v 


to 22nd 

1 (Uy 


0. Laooate 

Buffalo Reaper 


to 28th 

3 days 


B # cirim 

Auto neohsnle 


to 22nd 

2 days 


U Eala^hlin 

Pint Baj^er 


to 31st 

1 dqr 


. H ■::. 

'ar; a.i'or 


to 31st 

6 IS|rs 

Pord *urdy 

Porte Hanger 


to 31et 

6 days 

Hay 1st* :il^a ft* copenhorer, aaaiataat buffalo keeper* |900 par 
ttqy »•*. l«Wi Intahi^s, assistant buffalo Ixopcr, 960 par an 

.3? ;*lst, • . Mht «wto iec>^iie % M *•■ H As 

(a) QflBrtrmtikm of r UYiiQibLABMittBBLti- 

She rangers an dotty in tho l of Gardiner . tation 

constructed an excellent new aorml of sarec lumber at the stable 
daring: thalr apara ti>ie« 

I sua - lo , iMl M v (R I Ml ll lliaili MM PMil of 
tha parte of snow in tba spring, was built In our stops and attached 
to tha 75-horse-pcwer Kalta Caterpillar factor, in service Hay 


12 to 27 ♦ The shares of tho plow wo raade of 3/4 

steel, and are four foot in width, with o long ourro. fc wheel 
about eight laches in diameter .vas plane* under tho pro* of tho 
plow, whioh tooeps tho plow about four iaohoo off of tho aurfaoe 
of tho foii. Tho pi *. Mf t>MA fastened to the tractor, with 
long reds running %o tho roar, giving it solid bracing. 

log «U>. 6 foot high, 6} t—t wide, sad 40 foot 
filled vl th rook* iu eons true tod upstream fro* tho high a tool 
bridge oror tho Gardiner Ivor on tho :ower Palls rood, to diyort 
tho fleatlpg drift from tho too oust piers. Tho north plors of 
tho too oast plors was undermined, only 3 s uare foot of tho 64 
foot of soaring ourfaoo hod a footing. The damaged pior 
rop^lrod and giro* a fins footing of oonoroto. 

) foot aoutt of the Chinese iardon xo t bridge, tho 
12-foot boo* mo washed to tho road grade, nother log crib was 
•emetruoted 3S foot lose, with tho asm oootion dine nai one as tho 
ono above. Also a orib 4 foot high of logs and 40 foot long was 
plaood i nrallol to tho vsshod ban* to rotain tho dirt fill to bo 
msde later, and to prevent forthor wash, 

Tho It* crib on tho oast ontranoo road, at Alt Pork, was 
Milium I ttey 3rd *ad aomploted tho 27th. The orib is ISO foot 
lone* 4t *••* high, and tho insldo width will vary fro* ^ to T 
foot in tho clear. It is roc* flllod and has a log bottom to 
ffOtitll tie fill, Tho orib is rathor long and Is designed not as 
unit, tat nado up of independent units, oaoh unit of whloh Is 
fn«c to dip or sij&k so as to fill tho underooour. Ait feature 

ho orib is quite different than tho root of tho orlbs in tho 
pnrv.. It Is nere flexible and will not brldgo tho holor erased Vy 
ths undora 

(b) ifilntiMMi mi limit if rhrilmil to 

of diaoing, seeding and harrowing in tho 
at tho 45Saoro fiold noar tho northorn ontranoo waa eemploted, 

tho irrigation ditohos cleared out and laterals nado. Tho nan and 
4-tiorse tea* o^aeod in this work then moved to lot*rh Creole, 
whore he is to clear and Irrigate natural is oa d o w s for raising hay 
there for e He and tho tone taffalo herd. Ho arrived at lough 

efc on Hap 22nd, and has olnoo olearod up around tho preaiees, 
and re -aired the roofs to tho oshln and log stables there, 
ditohos wore cleaned out and tho wont of irrigation begun at the 
Buffalo Farm, on ose Creole. 

Bwpalrs ware made to the hi^h wire fence around the 
buffalo pasture at Kead<juartors, by Rangers Lawson and eoyen. 
S'erty-two new peats were cut and set !# these men* 

Extensive repairs v/«re also m<ie on the north line fence 
west of ttardlner, by ; -.angers etmd, Iceese, tfapuis, and Ua, 

requiring qaite a large number of now posts. 


'She plumber, assisted b;, Hangers £eoyim and Isweon, 
made extensive repairs to t.he mter sgrsta^a which qppplles the cabin , 
1 lile south from Headquarters, which is cockled by the ranker 
who looses after the dhow herd of buffalo durin/r the santaer season, 

road frora aardtner to oldsn Gate and in the vici: 
of Headquarters has been graded up, drained, and the side ditches 
cleaned* A large boulder 6 feet by 6 feet by 8 feet, that came 
dam from the top of the Gardiner Canyon and lodged in a concrete 
culvert, was removed, tat the broken head -walls and ti ftt 

wall have not been repaired, 

Werlc on the excavation of the footing for the gas tank 
at Gardiner was oounoneed the last two da^s of the MM repair 

crew of five mm eoraseneed repairs to the I $ ^-stoa the v 

7 th, 11 teaks between Oordlne?* <aad Golden Gate were ro %»irod« 
11 culverts from Gardiner to -eat Yellowstone, to 'fepler Cascades, 
Herri • to Canyon, and from Mararoo th to ftswer Falls were inspected, 
cleaned out, and the side ditches wipairdd mid the drains fixed. 
3ss on the above reads hare bom inspected* 

Ths snare area, with caterpillar sad sao :hient, 

left headquarters ...*v l*th said arrived at the lafee u*& 27th. 
distance of 49 miles «ras cleared of ma>« ahiefc in places was 4 
feet deep en the level, and seme drifts were 1 feet dec- 
plow attachment, constructed by the master rseehanie, has had a 
sevore test, and results show it to be a real success, which Is 
contrary to the information famished bqp the caterpillar people, 
who could not reeofaumd a successful attachasent. 

Since the completion of the llfc NM erl- V 

Lie's crew has made repairs to the road and bridges in the vicin- 
ity of SUc Fork. He progress report of this wortc has been received 
at this date. 

I o - ■■■ llnHi J ■■■ mUH : - 

Banes? • of the Cheetar-oatiiy? ^inr 
who was out la the park with sslstaat 
Viootaan and ftaigar :oy Prasier at tbt infl of tbt nonth of 3ferU, 
returned to rteraoth on B*y 4th f and eaapleted Mo work la the 
park shortly af to awards and loft* 

fto work of tho rwiwfl of feeding hay to el> herds was 
•enpleted on tho 5th of Kay, as waa aloo tho work of foodie tup/ 
to our herd of surplus horses. ;raalne haa sinoo that tin© boon 
oaffiolaat for both oik and horsos. 

.'ho buffalo hard wfcieb had boon hold aad fad hap at Head- 
quarters, was aloo mt on grass on tho rend and no rsjere hav haa 


2he Chief Raager's report lnaloaed shows a total of 
23 rial tors to tho park durlnr the rsonth. Jhose were most 
people who happened to eesie to aardiner on business aad ease as 
far aa 'anaoth Ret Springs aad baek to ftardlner the same d*y. 

.•here were no no e s ws o da tlons arailablo at the hotels 
durii* the month* Phe :rane ortatioa Ceapany furnished 
trans wtati on to such aa wanted to oo*e to ? eadquarters, Tla 
their nail stage lino between Gardiner aad iter. : . 

!?• Hi I. 

la) gsjMtrMttm of hyatoAi 

Be construction v?ork was In progress by this offioe at 
the olose of .:sty* 

W MMmwm «H1 Mm\t aft m§tnl 

Oar shop foree waa engaged throughout tho month In re- 
pairing tools and equipment, overfeaallag notor vehicles, includ- 
ing aotoreyolest with a Tie** to having mat of them In eaoellr 
condition for the opening Of the wanting season, sad keeping those 
!■ use i i ro ■ I H 

?be plumber waa busy keeping up the water anu 

systems, and >re>arin# for construction work to be accomplished 
later at the automobile oem>s throughout tho par 

-l - 

Thm paint ftp finished oaintiag a *?o*d oar ha iuufc in the 
and mAe and painted road and other si^na for use in the 
parie v and renovated employees* quarters at 2ftsmth« 

She hydro-electric power olant was ran daily* ascee .y /W ^A 

*tays, from 5«Qt - * so midnight # aad produced dure.- *^*** # *** v %, 

aonfch a total of 0OSO kilowatt hoar. il 

• * hours were ©misused by eoneessionera, and 679 ♦ . hours 
were consumed by our shops, grounds, public bui3 
ployees* ?be peak load ft mth was 36 ■'. • 

?he three electricians,, in addition to running the 
ale a trio power ?a&e necessary ohao^as «ead repairs to lime 

in ahope» employees quarters, and other I J quart-. 

Iflae aadnten&nee wx& I iftm of hay 

for wild animals and toa buffalo, is in progress at t lo 

Farm on Hose Creole, at i&ougfc Ci'eek, and :iold at or* v 

■Al sent consists ids and 

clearing of I asd other debfis, prep&rator. e hay» 

¥l —I lillUlMfli 21* Yellowstone ar 
transportation Company toept its lar*>e shop force b; c^hout 

tho month overhauling its large fleet of : spare- 

tory to haac' a earneotac? faMUjr travel, several . ;;ers 

ara also at work raraodt?. . . o bank house at 

ttamoth, formerly used for sf aches, into additional rooms 

for employees, thus devoting tho \vfiole building to -a* 

$fec Yellowstone NVH S2M1 taspaqp have two Chinaman 

in raising? garden true* on tbalr cite n lardiner River, 
ara daily raca iviag lar$e quantities e 

*eaeon t whloh ara being hauled ft air 

storehouse at rj!srn»oth and to tho var 

tone ■-• I Company is aHkia^ eocoelleat 

progress in its construction work at aramoth, sad will have tho 
saw tents ready for ocoapaac; the season* X'be 

work: on the new concrete plunge at "jamaoth is also making good V' 

progress, and #111 be ready to use before the end of June* the 
construction wor* at Canp oosevelt (near ?ower tfalls) is also in 
progress, harlag teen resumed about the middle of k\ m . s soon 


aa the roads were o *ne&« this company also began tho work of 
rebuild!*^ JLake Cawp, whisb has not been occupied for the past 
two years, and thls t and the wr& of ppeittrtng the carertf* at G«*v««* 
and 5 Jpr)sr Basin for tourists* is in pro&rese* 

J* :• Baynes* work of constructing a now picture & v^ 

on the site adjoining his ; *eec«t residence at Mamst). has been 
in progress since ay 4th, and is well advanced, 

Mr* 0« A. Hamilton is clearing up the grenade sad ma&ing 
usual preparations for opening his store at He is K 

also ■veinarii*? to rerafts operations at his lafce store* 

Curio atore concessioners tWfW I ^riaotaaax are still 
engaged in nafcin^ alterations to their bullcU MHeatfc* 

paintlx^ insltte and out, end giving their prsmiaaa a general reno- 

So new projects were begun during* the month, exr 
as referred to as finished or in ptagrass In preceding paragraphs. 

lie VUM OH ?B0?0S8» iKffiK* 

It is proposed to ?nafce all,li*?ht repairs to roads and 
bridges* such as the fond a will pernit. iiese repairs will be 
delved until about June 15, as the wei% will fesare to be done 
a^ala if a rain should happen before the tourist season begins* 

It is proposed to hare the ssatoraobila camp at the Caqyon 
in shape for tourists bgr <ftme 20th* • to havo water piped to the 
samp grounds and sauitary arranr^raents made. 

Baow will hare to be removed fro m the tood at Sylvan 
ass and also Ponraven i ass, but no trouble is expected tmn mam 
on the other roads. 

?h* gas tank at Gardiner will be completed this aonth. 

It is very possible that sprinkling between Oar&iner and 
the Upper Basin will be eo sneneed before July 1st, If the funds 
will pei-mit; at the present time the dust it so*te trouble - 

One or ism men mast be owAoyed at ' eadqwsrtcrs b^ th© 

-1 - 

day, to Irrigate the grounds, mow and eare for the lams and teep 
thora In order* 

1 war* In progress shorn under XV is to be taept up 
to completion. 

?he tame show herd of buffalo, of ar miosis* is 

to be broc^rht in to Hemmeth where they ean be viewed by tourists. 

he tele. -toons lines must all bs gone orer sad repairs 
se thsy will be in good working condition for the tourist 

bout at towperary rangers are to report for stumer duty 
during June, receive instructions, and be distributed to their 
various stations for susaer work of road patrols* patrols over 
formations, oheC'tlng automobiles, etc e&rrwrement of stations 
and permanent rangers to suit sane* conditions, is also to be made. 

I laas must be made for assembling of crews for naintonance 
of roads, sprinkling, otc, as soon as possible after July 1st, 
and also for rwrehase of supplies for the next fiscal year* 

11 ooneeeel oners will asks preparations during the err 
part of- June to receive the heavy travel expooted at the opening 
of the park season, June 20th« 

\ general reofi^anii&tion of our forces with a readjust- 
ment of division of duties will be put into sffeet during the 
month of Jane « 

TIX. ^OLlOiag* 

ZIo new policies were adopted dating the say/. 

the policy of pemlttlug the graalog of cattle in the 
park, for supplying fresh meat to the concessioners and government 
messes, which has always been in effect but which has not been 
la practice for several years, because the contractor found it 
mors expedient to do his slaughtering outside, has been revived, 
and is under consideration, .'his will nrobabU *• ttttled during 
the month of June. 

Till. COS? 0? 0*<E AHO0* 

The seat Mpert for the month of lay is inclosed. 


Although the v/eather oouditlon* v?*re oolder than usual, 
the g«wl«g conditions were fairly flood, and there waa enough 
graai ^ % Hh 00 that it ma no loader necessary to feed hay 
to tha wild animals, and the surplus horaaa and tho tana hard 
of buffalo were also turned out on £?ra»s on tMs date. -Ms was 
a great relief from the oonditi one that had prevailed all winter 
aad late into srsriug, due to the shortage and high pries of hay, 
and leak of the usual forage mi the range* ?he 100 tons of hay 
purchased with the *470S donated by private subsoription Just 
laated through , and served to save raany thousands of the elk 
«hlfch were not strong enough to gat thron&h the last few hard 
weeks of winter without being *•*• »lao« the grass has beoome 
plentiful, the number of wild animals that havo died are few, and 
those re sorted as being fbund in ay w*e mostly some that died 
previously and were not found until later* hile the losses hare 
been co^sid orable, thay were not as bad as feared, and we still 
have a goodly mwber of elk, deer, and antelope in the northern 

ril gives she nuaber 
in thirherd'at'^riaoltuiin^ new oalves. On* bull was killed 
at Hatooth in the oorral bqr another bull on Ayrll 19th f and was 
not reported, therefore, the number should havelaea given as 451, 
2w*nty~fc»o oalves were bora in the hard during &ay, making the 
total nanfcer of oalves to date 46, and the total number of animals 
in the heard at the 0tid of &$r, 4i :, ord is now loeatad 

on the range in the vicinity of the ranch on lose Creek, but a 
small anew hard will be brou ht in to Mamsth during Juno, 
and three bulls will r*obably be shipried during the month* She 
anlmala were thin in flesh at the beginning? of Mt§% &** to their 
rather short ration of hay duri*** the winter, tat si ace plenty 
of grass is available, they are piakin& up rapidly and are nm 
looking well* 

Buffalo, wild herd t Bo reports were received of the wild 
herd of buffalo during -'*flr# 

Baays a hile the boars hove oon© out ffom their winter 
quarters, aad taatv •!«»• Have been reported, but fow of thoa have 
boon seen, as there are so nsmy carcasses of elk that dietf during 
the winter that they oan twi upon, they have not oome around 
the quarters at SSsnustftu Banters near the park lines have been 

•1 - 

fairly saooassful in oecurii^ beer this 8pri%. 

iftttlTOQ: Bangor ;JoJu«*ghlin, who iicii patrols from Gardiner 
Station, re wts hewing soon 146 antelope durir^ tho nonth, and 
that they were now in good condition, 3affaJ «# Laoombe 

reported about as xay more on the r a cgc me 

<>r, tew while he vu roundly np buffalo* These retvorts in- 
dieate that there are at least 800 antelope in the nrk, and Is 
aoet cnesvraglqg after the fast hard winter. 

uito a norther of blacktailed dear f and a few of 
the whitetailed variety, still renain around headquarter s 9 and 
these, as veil as those reported in the hi hor altitudes, are 
gaining In flesh and rcoov: 

winter. ; /-three doad blaefctailcc dear vera r 

having *)oe*i found, but those are a*ao Ifce* diod earlier in the 
«***< me lose dm-iiv the etMl or If MM sli i. 

£lfc: The el> that survived the hard winter Saprovoc in 
flesh wonderfully during the aonth of ttsy, cad are no? looklzg 
• and no n»ro are dying, as they hare an abundance of feed* 
?4>st of the larger herds have gone back towards the suaaa 
tat there ere still a few hundred within ■ tm 
And a snnll band still hangs around eloec to the 
aey be seen erery day feeding upon ear lame, Jhcre trc 234 
eareasees found by Badger Anderson on his tatrols alonr the north 
line east of Gardiner, bat these died mostly U - arot ojri 
Conservative* estimates place tho number of elk renaini^ in the 
northern herd, including those on the adison Mver and on the 
est Sallatln, at around 11,000, and I en reliably informed 

5 about 13,000 ef the southern herd* vdiioh wintered in Jackson 
i, survived the hard winter. Eighty elk, including 79 oows end 
1 bull, wintered around the warm sprigs in the viciziity of Harris 
Basin, sad tea or three hundred wintered along the i irehole River, 
Upper Basin to the west entrance* ?here were but fo . deaths 
these two saall herds. 

e are tt^ fortunate to hove so %qy elk left after one 
of the aest perilous winters that they have ever had to contend 

ith, and had It not bean for the fact that ttylwere able to 
cure large quantities of forage for the* during the winter and 
late into the siring, the results of the long hard winter m 
have been most dieasteroue. 

-1 - 

>; A few mountain sheep died during the 
tryirr; s-^lxc Bi&aifc* or April and &y, tat tne lose was eraall 
as eotqpared with the ©lie and door* and those seen recently are 
in fine eonditlon* 

jftttlftft; Uhlef i caster Btfootes epent the first tranter 
day a of May in the eoutfeeastem corner Hi the iparfc* where be sear 
W moose* of whieb 81 were grown and 14 ere last year's o&lves, 
ineide of the pari*, aad 49 were near tfte park In the t?|*per 
Yellowstone county, of whieh 41 war* grora end S oalves* 
found nine deed moose in all. He reports that the ftoose in that 
country were in a rather week e audit; I laofc of fera«e* due 

to deep snow and severe winter* - lso that he did m> 
oore? the ootmfcry tho^ou^hly, as the travel i ■ sit, 

to soft, toep «mow f and also to 11* AM that he fouaid it in- 
advisable to disturb the imym in their ireafesaac- as 
they were likely to get into &**r\ snow end get down where they 
oould not get up again. 

£amtoj&t °w» badger and forty-one coyotes were rented 
killed durlnff the mnth % bat toe to the lateness of the season, 
the -jolta are if but little value* M reports were received of 
noun tain lions or solves dnriag the sienth. 

Ormxlmt i About ay 5th tho grass had gotten such a start 
that toe wild animals as well as the tame buffalo and the horse 
heard were able to get all tUe subsistence neeesoary 
further feeding of hay. It grew plentifully shron^hout the 
oo» all of th* animals are getting all they at 

little effort now f end besides there is a good growth, on the 
rea^e along the north line that will cure <m the stalk later In 
the sooner for nest winter's supply* 

:he Tellowatone Park Cawps Cerapaay had N horses In 
tho ;*r nd the Yellowstone ark *raiifi ortation 

Cesqpmy »^» "*** of these on graa* in tno vicinity of Feed- 
quarters* <*ad also we have had an averse of about & of our 
surplus saddle, pack and team horses on grass during 2*Vt taking 
then up as they ware wanted for work* 

Ur« .-alter Ul, who bought tha Van Mfe property 
Gardiner and tho Upper Yellowstone Volley* »*& feis aeeistaut, 
Bodine* ealled at my offlee ay 26th to dlsouss the desirability 
of reestabli shirr the praotloe which was abandoned in 1916 of 
grasia? the beef eat tie needed for supply! m the hotels and oaeape 
in the park* Phis request was disapproved by your letter of .ay 

-1 - 

21et,(in the case of the Yellowstone iwk Betel Company,} tat they 
have reopened the ease en the #*&uads that it is neeessary on 
aeeenut of increased travel, and further decision ie pet to 1m 


birds are sm*eh in evidence throughout the rm*&* 

arte Hanger ndersoa resorts that &rouee are mere 
numerous than usual to the country he ie >mtrollintf t near the 
north line of the pjfcg eaet of Qardi&er. 

Further detail*, relative to birds, M observed hy , ark 
Saturallst ,4cintiar f are given in another portion of tMs report. 
- the heading of ' o&sonal Cfaan • 

n interesting si*a-d*velorrcent of the work with tho 
elk vat the observanee by naturalist dinner of may birds on 
fee foovUii/ ml b ad dia& Emwwdfl bol<xv , notl . ?he birds « * 
wtoraoicers, aagpieo, crows, and Brewer blae&bisdo. ihfiir 
abundance reached its highest point about ;*ii first, fte 
birds were feeding and it was ML laved I , ^ere feedisg 

on tictics which also were mat abundant about April first* , 

s ectmtu of natcraeftar was collected and stomach easesined and 
parts of several ticks were Jfcund therein* 

It *as roved then that this bird was destructive to 
H i-ioe our tick problem is a serious one, it is believed 
that this isreUttiaary data is valuable enough to warrant a *aore 
extended examination next season. 

2he time those birds ate ticks appwwritl^ extended 
<nw the latter half of ;ia*eh, all of tiril, and ?e part 

of Hey* 


aest of the streams of the imrk were high and the water 
was isad^r, due to mltlng snow, therefore fistiisfc oas not #ood. 


Hi ir joj At the Altitude of Nameth the following flowers 

began to Moon- 13th, Doadelloue; 15th, Yellow 
Mil; 17th, asque floweri 19th, hlox* lid 

clover; 1st, -ho Ala star; 23rd, lid strawberry; 
24th, Larkspur, 26th, Dwarf eanflowwr and Spring 

At the* altitude of Hamoth, eaowpt where altitude 
given, Xeavea buret their buds 3 13th, 
berr? bashes; 17th, lid rod raepberry bushes, 19th. 
Cottonwood trooo ( 1 b. -Uh) ft.) i 21et, lder trees: 
26th, Blreh treee ♦ ; 30th, 111cm 

bushes (5600 ft,). 

«?«ssles ' ap-«ared en willowe em the 9th near 
Mejonoth at 6400 ft., and on the 31et at iatao 
Yellowstone at 7780 ft. In general, vagetation at 
en altitude of 7500 ft. on May &•** "»* at the 
earns etage ae it wae at 6500 ft. on fay 13th. 

Birds- The nutereekere that had been so none roue all 

winter about .'to-moth had ,*aotioally all left for 

higher altitudes by the 

Ulgratory birds arrived i 6th, udubon warbler 

and ri*ht flyeatehert 6th, ?ree ewallew, say ptoobe, 

e stern veeoer sparrow, and *wralng derej 9th, 

hite-oro.vnod aparrow t 13th, Chi 
KU*tlrd| 16th, Oreen- tailed tewtaeei lTth, Cowbird, 
16th, spotted earid i or and lleon phalarope; 20th, 

hits pelloani 21et, *.aadhlll erane; -6th, Cliff 
•wallow and Yellow warbleri 30th, Catbird, .:1st, 

.ndiibon hermit thrush. 

First eg*?e obeerved: 16th, oeprey In Gardiner 
Canyon at 5600 ft. and about the eane date in 
Yellowetono Canyon at 7200 ft.| 21at, llldeer 
plover? L'Bth, obixu 

ej in Hkx 4th, last one eeen with Old home and on the 

earns date another elk had new horns five Inohes 
lo*.' • 11th, laat obeerred death of winter«4dllled 
elk. 15th, began to in *m* in flesh although it 
evident a week earlier that the regaining elk 

,_n ohar^lar; bs earner pelego. At the em 
the- Ml MtoM IK e*M iMiM IfloJ H HM 

-.1 - 

(Animals ooii- yearlings to fifteen inches Ion- on the heal tr lest 
tinned) i of tho larere bulls* ft calves soon before the 

end of tho month. 

Hale deer: On the 16th X noted that where the 
hair had Veen eera ed off earlier, the red pelade 
of summer was appearing* 24th, the red pelade was 
shewing: throngh the old hair; at the end of the 
math about half the deer were chewing the red, 
eanner pelage. At the end of the month, the grow* 
lag horns were from three to eleven inches in 
length, dcendlng en the age aad oondltion of the 

ttain sheep: On the tie* there were fifteen 
on the tenon eaet of Jardlner Canyon, rhese 
to one on the 90th aad that one left 
beftre the end of the nor 

tieeellacneeue* oodehuctcs aad ground squirrels 
were oat on Swan Laics Baein (7900 ft. he 9th; 

10th 9 Jack rabbits had completely changed to 
artwer pelage; 31st, the first mantled ground 
squirrel seen at 8000 ft* elevation. 
cc.ers (Hylic first heard near Ttosaoth on the 
3rd; raid in fall force at Lake station on the fist, 
Kiret boll aaalos eeen on the 26th near Boiling 

Sone of these seasonal changes ere late, espeoia? 
early in the month; tat after Hay 15th, seasonal changes 
often earlier than usual. ieokoning tram these data 
is toddy four days later than the 

I c is to bo noted that the seasonal changes of flowers 
aad animals, etc., do agl depend on the depth of last winter v s 
enow still regaining, for that is folly three weeks late in going 
off the nark plateau. 

jTtgtf aafl Yiftlfttiiwa jtf tarn* 

36 vie la t tens of law were reported, nor were any 
arrests made, during the math* 

Rasters ease aad aiaughlin en one of their patrols 
to l eese Creek near the nark line west of aardiner, observed tee 
son engaged in skinning a freshly killed bear, in the gsne pre* 
serve outsMe of the iark, artf re sorted the facts, a letter wa© 
written to the State Uome arden of Montana in regard to this il- 
legal hunting in the game preserve, tat in the meantime the arties 
made complaint against themselves before the deputy 


ivizi*sten and paid their fine and were also made to forfeit 
the bear trophiee. 

Jhere is no dan or of forest fire* in the park while 
everything is 1 its oreoent et condition* 

re sorted during the month except a alight injur,/ 
to a blaotonith's helper* who eat hie hand on the crier/ wheel* 

fee ehaugea have been noted in the natural 
this sprite. Old tfeithfol leaser seems to be >leying oftenor 
than it did last season* but this will be reported aero minutely 
next month, after nere careful observations hare been mode* Zhe 
Constant Peyser at orris Basin appears to have stopped playing, 
and the hot sprite and snail geyeers in this basin do not appaar 
<juite ae aotive as they were last year* 

ootor Sastea rope, of San Franeleoo, California, and 
his friend, *r. Young, arrived at the western entreaoe :ay 26th f 
to secure the family of four grissly bears for the California 
eadany ot beienees, as anthorlsed rehruary 17th. As announced, 
these gentlemen were equipped with formidable looking bows and 
arrows with whleh they hops to mil the bears that are eeleoted 
as spool was. Doctor ope*& brother, and friend, and their guide, 
Vi9& Frost, of Oody, arrived Tie the northern entrance on Say Slat, 
and joined the party at £naad Oanyon. 

Mr* Clark, the new supervisor of the Jallatln national 
orest, with anger oLain, of his foree, sailed en flay 18th. 

• • resident oi the Yellowstone ark 

Hotel Qowpaoy and Yellowstone . arfc ?rane ortation GoaQpnmr, visited 
the parfc :::/.y 6th and 7th. 

ttejgeant I'll sen, and three oorporals, all 

Of the IU k arine corps, detached at MLUU«e fro-i the oving 
Marine travel tng, T ooruitin^ and Pnblleity party Bft* 8, Hay 2nd 
3rd, taking photographs, and viewing soenery in the vi 


2he only motion picture representative) in the parte 
during the month of fcy was r. J. ., representing a, 
Chester, of IN est 41st street* V,m York City, who oane to the 
perk aroh 12th and left ay 9th* ftraqr asslstanee praetioabl© 
vat given t, >-*sey: his exoenoes were carried lap this off iee 

while he wae in the park, as per your instructions* and he reports 
that he secured excellent results. 

I Free plcturoc were held in the ost 
auditorial weoJdy, under a coo erativ* a rran g e ment 
the *arfc employees and residents of lardlner, 

Religious serrloes were held in the Chapel en :?ay 9th 
23rd, by Reverend J. • rltehard, Bpiecr. eionary fros 

•.. ,' I ( 1 • 

2he usual report of monies due, oo Hooted, and 
raitted, on the r^nlar blanfc fome, together with money orders, 
for v4«05, is inclosed. lease acknowledge 

I MM l yowrs, 

NUttl 4B1 

'i!he ireotor, 
National -arte Uerriee, 
Depart *mt of the Interior, 

ashing ton, iu i 




., I 

Memorandum of Ranger operations during the month of Kay 1920* 
Memo* to Mr* Lindsley: 

1* The ima&kjgc temperature was uniformlly loir during the month, 
but no unusual extremes oo cured* There was neealy 50j£ more pre- 
cipitation during the month than for the average May* 3*2 inches 
of snow fell during the math of which two inches fell on the last 
day* Ths wind movement was about normal* 

2* Ranger Townsend moved from Riverside Station to Norris Station 
?n the 28th of the month* 

Mr. Hutohins noved to Slough Creek on the 22nd ?:here he will 
take oare of the hay fields and this years crop*of hay* 

Temporary Ranger Trip was relieved of his duties as ranger on 
the 18th and started as truck driver on the 19th. 

Assistant Chief Ranger Smith moved from Gardiner where he had 
\yf been feeding hay to game to West Yellowstone where he will take 
care of tho Western Section of the park. 

Following is a list of men who were on leave during the month 
with inclusive dates of their leaves: 

Sooyen ,i***1 }/i^ 
















15th N. 



Laoombe (Buffalo Keeper) 

















3* The rangers at Cardiner stopped feeding elk on the Gardiner 
feed grounds on the 2nd of the month. Only a few bales of hay were 
fed the first two days of the month. 

The elk around the feeding grounds at Headquarters were fed for 
the last time on the 5th of the month. l\ tons of hay were fed the 
elk at Headquarters during the five days. 

The buffalo that had been held in at Headquarters on account 
of t,he shortage of feed at the buffalo farm ware taken back to the 
farm on the 3rd. Two tons of hay were fed these t& during the first 
two days of the month* 
y/ The herd of horses was turned out to pasture on the 5th of j^ 

\/ the month. 2^ tons of hay were fed £o- the horse herd the first five ft S> 
days of the month. -*- *V#Ki"* 'tifcJub*-' X^t^T 

Rangers ^awson and Sooyen cut, hauled s(nd set 42 new posts tff?* 
for the fence at the buffalo corral near ' Headquarters • They worked 
four days helping to pipe water tin to the cabin at the buffalo corral. 
>S During the month the rangers at Gardiner in their spare time 

'""built a fine new corral at the Gardiner Station. 

On the 4th rangers Trisohraan and Fraaier returned from a trip 
to the Upper Basin* and anyon with Mr. Ramsey the moving picture man. 
This trip had been made on skis* 


Assistant Chief Ranger Trischman acted as property man and timekeeper 
with the snow crew from the 12th to the 28 th* 

k Assistant Chief Ranger Brooks was in the Upper Yellowstone country 
from the 1st to the 19th*/ 

The other rangers made their regular patrols, out next winters 
y/ wood, cleaned their stations and station grounds, and other duties 
as ordered by the Chief Ranger* 

The roof on the stable at the hay farm on Slough 6 reek was put 
\y^ on and general nut clean up made around the farm during the last ten 
days of the month* 

The cleaning of ditches and the starting of irragation was % 
acomplished at the hay fields at the Buffalo *arm during the month* 

4. There is still a small band of elk around Headquarters. These 
animals can be seen feeding on the lawns in front of Headquarters 
daily, which is very unusual as all a Ik have kstt left this vicinity 
in former years. Many of the deer are still around Headquarters* 

There have been 48 calves born in the tame herd of buffalo this 
spring* All buffalo are located near the buffalo farm at the end of 
the month* 

While most of the bears are out few have been seen, for there 
are so many dead elk in the mountains they do not come near the hotels 
and camps for food* The bear were late in making their appearance 
this spring. u 

148 antelope were seen during the month by Ranger He aughin 
who reports them is good condition* 

There are a few Blacktail and a few Whitetail deer still around 
headquarters and they are in good shape. Rangers report a goo$ many 
deer near the park line in the park about five miles west of ardiner, 
Montana * 

Most of the elk have gone back in the hills and they are re- 
ported as doing fine and looking good. 

Ranger Anderson reports that between the mouth of Bear Creek 
and Hellroaring Creek he counted during the month 211 dead elk, 
5 dead buffalo, and 19 dead deer. In the Blacktail District he 
counted 73 dead elk, one dead buffalo, and 14 dead deer* 

During the month the following hides and scalps were turned 

^ame Coyotes Badger 

v v V / l Anderson one one 

y\X </ five scalps 

/M$ > P Winn six 

» Lacombe five 

On account of the high and muddy condition of the streams 
in the park little fishing has been done and few fish have been taken* 

Ranger /aider son reports that grouse are more numerous than 
in former years and that they run up into large numbers* 

5. Rangers ^eese and McLauglin located two men hunting bear in 
the G a iiatin G ame ^serve within a short distance of the park line, 
but asi they have no jurisdiction outside of the park no arrest followed. 
The facts were reported to the Chief Rangers Office and a letter 
written to the State Game Warden of Montana, The guilty parties gave 
themselves up to a Deputy State G ame w arden at Livingston, Montana, 
and theyiere fined $26 and costs and made to forfeit the bear hide. 

Yellowstone Park, 70 . , June 2 f 1920 • 

Weather Conditions — liar et Springe. 
MAY, 1920. 

Monthly mean, 43«4 ; departure, -4.0* . Ihe 
temperature was uniformly low throughout the 
month, but no unusual extremes occurred. 

Temperature : 

Precipitation: i t 2.84; departure 40.92, or nearly 50' 
more than for the average May. 

Snowfall: Total, 3.2 inches, which lawless than norr 

Two inches of snow fell during the storm of the 
last day of the month. This amount of snow is 
unusual so lat( 9 spring. 

Tind: o wind movement was about normal, :iaxinua 

velocity, 36 miles from the southwest on the 25th. 

Sunshine: Percentage of possible, 55; normal F>3. 

. .1. letcher. 





June 1, 1920. 
Preliminary REPORT on Tick destruction by birds. 
To: Chester A. Lindsley, Asat. Supt., 
From: M. P. Skinner, Park Haturaliet. 

An interesting side-developement of the work 
with the elk was the observance of many biros on the 
feeding and bedding grounds below iiammoth. The oirds 
were nutcrackers, magpies, crows, and Brewer blackbirds. 
Their abundance reached its highest point about April 
first. The birds were feeding and it was believed 
that they were feeding on ticks which also wore nost 
abundant about April first, A specimen of nutcracker 
was collected z.n6 stomach examined and parts of several 
tick? were found therein. 

It was proved then that this bird was destruc- 
tive to ticks. Since our tick problem is a serious 
one, it in believed that this preliminary data is valu- 
able enough to warrant a more extended examination 
next season. 


The time these ate ticks apparently extended 
over the letter half of ]&arch, all of April, and the fore 
part of May* 





J une 1, 1920. 
REPORT on seasonal changes* 

To: Chester A, Lindsley, Asst* Supt. 
Prom: M. P. Skinner, Park Naturalist* 

Botanical: At the altitude of Mammoth the following flowers 

began to bloom: 13th, Dandelions; 15th i Yellow bell; 
17th, Paeque flower; 19th, Phlox; 21st, Wild clover; 
21st, Shooting star; 23rd, Wild Btrawberry; 24th, Lark- 
spur; 26th, Dwarf sunflower and Spring beauty* 

At the altitude of Uammoth, except where altitude 
given, leaves burst their buds: 13th, Gooseberry bushes; 
17th, Wild red raspberry bushes; 19th, Cottonwood trees 
(alt. 5400 ft,)? 21st, Alder trees; 26th, Birch trees 
(alt, 5600 ft.); 30th, Willow bushes (5600 ft.). 

"Pussies" appeared on willows on the 9th near Mam- 
moth at 6400 ft,, and on the 31st at Lake Yellowstone 
at 7750 ft, In general, vegetation at an altitude 
of 7500ft, on Hay 31st, was at the oaiae stage as it was 
at 6500 ft. on May 13th. 

Birds: The nutcrackers that had been so numerous all winter 

about Mammoth had practically all left for higher alti- 
tudes by the 4th. 

Migratory birds arrived: 5th, Audubon warbler end 
Wright flycatcher; 8th, Tree swallow, Say phoebe, Wes- 
tern vesper sparrow, and Mourning dove; 9th, Y/hite- crowned 
sparrow; 13th, Chipping sparrow and Kingbird; 15th Green- 
tailed towhee; 17th, Cowbird; 18th Spotted sandpiper and 
Wilson phalarope; 20th, White pelican; 21st, Sandhill 
crane; 26th, Cliff swallow and Yellow warbler; 30th, 
Catbird; 31st, Audubon hermit thrush. 

First eggs observed: 16th, Ocprey in Gardiner Canyon 
at 5600 ft, and about the same date in Yellowstone Can- 
yon at 7200 ft; 21st, Killdeer plover; 28th, Robin. 

Animals: Elk: 4th, last one seen with old horns and on the 
same date another elk had new horns five inches long. 
11th, last observed death of winter-killed elk. 15th, 
began to improve in flesh although it was evident a week 
earlier that the remaining elk were improving in health 
and strength, 23rd, elk oegan changing to the summer 
pelage. At the end of the month new horns were three 
inches long on the yearlings to fifteen inches long on 

Page 2. 

the healthiest of the large bulls. No calves *3cen before 
the end of the month. 

Mule deer: Or the 16th, I noted that where the hair 
had been scraped off earlier, the red pelage of summer 
was appearing; 24th, the red pelage was showing through 
the old hair; at the end of the month about half the 
deer were showing the red, sunnier pelage. At the end 
of the month, the growing horns were from three to eleven 
inches in length depending on the age and condition of 
the animal. 

Duntain iheep: On the 21st, there were fifteen sheep 
on the bench east of Gardiner Canyon. These decreased 
to ore on the 30th and that one left before the end cf 
the month. 

Misc; Woodehucke and ground squirrels were out on 
Swan Lake Basin (7300 ft) on the 9th; 10th, jack rabbits 
had completely changed to summer pelage; 31st, the first 
mantled* ground squirrel seen at 8000 ft. elevation. 

Other: Peepers (Hylas) first heard near Mammoth on the 3rd; 
and in full force at Lake station on the 31st* 

First bull snake seen en the Z6th near foiling River. 

Some cf these seasonal changes were late, especially 
early in the month; but after May 15th, seasonal changes 
were often earlier than usual. Reckoning from these 
data, the season is to-day four days later than the aver- 

It is to be ncteci that the seasonal changes of flowers 
and animals, etc. do not depend on the depth of last 
guf 6 winter's snow still remaining, for that is fully three 
weeks late in going off the Park plateau.